Pankajnath Tiwari :-
The history of the Indian financial market dates back several centuries and has undergone significant transformations over time. Here is a broad overview of the key milestones in the evolution of the Indian financial market:
Pre-Independence Era (Before 1947):
Indigenous banking systems existed in ancient India, with evidence of banking practices found in texts like Manusmriti and Arthashastra.
During the British colonial period, the establishment of the Bank of Calcutta (now the State Bank of India) in 1806 marked the beginning of modern banking in India.
The Indian capital market began to take shape with the formation of the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) in 1875 and the Ahmedabad Stock Exchange in 1894.
Post-Independence Era (1947-1991):
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) was established in 1935 as the central banking institution of India. After independence in 1947, the RBI gained more authority and control over monetary policy.
The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) was formed in 1988 as the regulatory body for the Indian securities market.
The National Stock Exchange (NSE) was established in 1992, introducing electronic trading systems and modern market infrastructure.
The liberalization of the Indian economy in 1991 led to economic reforms and opening up of the financial markets to foreign investment.
Modern Era (1991-Present):
The Indian financial market witnessed several reforms and developments, including the introduction of electronic trading, dematerialization of shares, and the establishment of depositories.
The derivatives market gained prominence with the introduction of index futures and options in 2000.
The Mutual Fund industry experienced significant growth, offering various investment options to retail investors.
The introduction of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) in 2017 aimed to streamline taxation and enhance economic integration.
The government launched initiatives like Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (financial inclusion program) and Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) to improve access to financial services and welfare benefits.
The introduction of Unified Payments Interface (UPI) in 2016 revolutionized digital payments in India, leading to a surge in fintech innovation.
The Indian financial market has evolved into a dynamic ecosystem with diverse participants, including banks, stock exchanges, insurance companies, mutual funds, non-banking financial companies (NBFCs), and fintech startups. Ongoing developments continue to shape the financial landscape, promoting financial inclusion, innovation, and investor protection.
Banking Sector Reforms:
In the 1990s, the Indian banking sector underwent reforms to enhance efficiency and competitiveness. The introduction of measures like priority sector lending, capital adequacy norms, and the adoption of international accounting standards aimed to strengthen the banking system.
The establishment of new private sector banks, such as ICICI Bank and HDFC Bank, brought in a wave of modernization and customer-centric services.
Liberalization and Foreign Investment:
The liberalization of the Indian economy in the early 1990s opened doors for foreign investors. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) policies were relaxed, allowing foreign participation in various sectors, including finance.
Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) were allowed to invest in Indian capital markets, leading to increased liquidity and international exposure.
The introduction of Qualified Foreign Investor (QFI) and Foreign Portfolio Investor (FPI) regulations further facilitated foreign investment.
Demutualization of Exchanges:
The process of demutualization began in the late 1990s, which led to the separation of ownership and management in stock exchanges. This move increased transparency, efficiency, and accountability in the functioning of exchanges.
Several exchanges, including the BSE and the NSE, completed the demutualization process.
Introduction of Derivatives and Commodity Exchanges:
The introduction of derivatives trading in 2000 opened new avenues for risk management and speculation. Futures and options contracts on various indices and stocks were launched, providing hedging opportunities to market participants.
Commodity exchanges, such as the Multi Commodity Exchange (MCX) and the National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX), were established to facilitate trading in commodities and commodity derivatives.
Regulatory Reforms and Investor Protection:
The SEBI has continuously implemented regulatory reforms to safeguard investor interests, enhance market integrity, and promote fair practices.
Measures like the introduction of Know Your Customer (KYC) norms, Investor Protection Fund (IPF), and Investor Education and Protection Fund (IEPF) have been implemented to protect investors and promote transparency.
Introduction of Financial Technologies (Fintech):
The rise of fintech in India has transformed the financial landscape. Digital payment platforms, mobile wallets, and peer-to-peer lending have gained popularity, promoting financial inclusion and accessibility.
Initiatives like the Jan Dhan-Aadhaar-Mobile (JAM) trinity and the Bharat Bill Payment System (BBPS) have further advanced the digitization of financial services.
Consolidation and Merger Activities:
In recent years, there has been a wave of consolidation in the Indian financial market. Several mergers and acquisitions have taken place, leading to the consolidation of banks, insurance companies, and mutual fund houses. This consolidation aims to create stronger entities with enhanced capabilities and improved efficiencies.
Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) and Infrastructure Investment Trusts (InvITs):
In 2014, SEBI introduced regulations for Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) and Infrastructure Investment Trusts (InvITs) to provide opportunities for investors to participate in the real estate and infrastructure sectors.
REITs allow investors to invest in income-generating real estate assets, while InvITs enable investment in infrastructure projects such as roads, power, and telecommunications.
Introduction of Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC):
The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code was enacted in 2016 to provide a comprehensive framework for the resolution of insolvencies and distress situations in a time-bound manner.
The IBC aimed to streamline and expedite the resolution process, enhance creditor rights, and promote a healthy credit culture in the financial system.
Introduction of Securities Lending and Borrowing (SLB):
In 2008, SEBI introduced the Securities Lending and Borrowing (SLB) framework, allowing market participants to lend or borrow securities for a specified period.
SLB facilitates short-selling and provides liquidity to the market, while allowing investors to earn additional income by lending their securities.
Green Bonds and Sustainable Financing:
In recent years, there has been a growing focus on sustainable financing in India. Green bonds, which raise capital for climate and environmental projects, have gained traction.
Various entities, including corporates, government bodies, and financial institutions, have issued green bonds to fund renewable energy projects, energy-efficient infrastructure, and other environmentally friendly initiatives.
National Pension System (NPS):
The National Pension System, launched in 2004, is a voluntary defined contribution retirement savings scheme for government employees and individuals in the organized sector.
NPS provides individuals with a pension account, allowing them to contribute and accumulate savings for their retirement.
Financial Inclusion Initiatives:
The Indian government has implemented several initiatives to promote financial inclusion, such as the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY), which aims to provide every household with access to a bank account.
Other initiatives include Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT), which facilitates the direct transfer of subsidies and welfare benefits to beneficiaries’ bank accounts, reducing leakages and improving efficiency.
Introduction of Unified Payments Interface (UPI) 2.0:
The Unified Payments Interface (UPI) has witnessed significant growth since its introduction. UPI 2.0, launched in 2018, introduced features like overdraft facility, one-time mandate, and invoice in the inbox, further enhancing the capabilities of digital payments.
Introduction of Robo-Advisory Services:
Robo-advisory services have gained prominence in the Indian financial market. These digital platforms use algorithms and automation to provide investment advice and portfolio management services to retail investors at a lower cost.
Introduction of Aadhaar-based Authentication:
Aadhaar, a unique biometric identification system, has been integrated into the financial sector to streamline processes and enhance security. Aadhaar-based authentication allows individuals to access various financial services conveniently and securely.
Emergence of Alternative Investment Funds (AIFs):
Alternative Investment Funds (AIFs) have gained popularity as investment vehicles for high net worth individuals and institutional investors. AIFs include private equity funds, venture capital funds, and hedge funds, providing alternative avenues for investments.
Introduction of Sovereign Gold Bonds (SGBs):
Sovereign Gold Bonds (SGBs) were introduced in 2015 as a means to invest in gold in a paperless form. These bonds offer investors an opportunity to earn interest and benefit from the price appreciation of gold.
Introduction of Bharat Bond ETFs:
Bharat Bond Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) were launched in 2019, allowing investors to invest in a basket of debt securities issued by government-owned entities. These ETFs provide an additional investment avenue for fixed income investors.
Expansion of Microfinance Industry:
The microfinance industry in India has grown significantly, providing access to financial services to underserved segments of the population. Microfinance institutions offer small loans and other financial products to micro-entrepreneurs, promoting financial inclusion and empowerment.
Introduction of Corporate Bond Repositories:
To enhance transparency and efficiency in the corporate bond market, SEBI introduced the concept of corporate bond repositories. These repositories maintain electronic records of corporate bonds, facilitating ease of trading, settlement, and monitoring.
Development of Regulatory Sandbox Framework:
The introduction of a regulatory sandbox framework by regulatory authorities allows fintech startups to test innovative products and services in a controlled environment. This framework encourages experimentation, promotes innovation, and fosters collaboration between traditional financial institutions and fintech players.
Introduction of Payment Banks and Small Finance Banks:
The Reserve Bank of India granted licenses to Payment Banks and Small Finance Banks to increase financial inclusion and serve the unbanked and underserved areas of the country. These banks offer limited banking services, focusing on providing basic banking facilities to remote areas and marginalized sections of society.