Pankajnath Tiwari :-
The power and jurisdiction of the Indian police are governed by the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) and the respective state police acts. The police in India have both investigative and law enforcement powers to maintain law and order, prevent and detect crimes, and protect the citizens.
Here are some key powers and functions of the Indian police:
Maintenance of law and order: The police have the authority to maintain public order and peace, prevent and control riots, and handle situations that may disrupt public harmony.
Investigation of crimes: The police are responsible for investigating criminal offenses. They have the power to collect evidence, arrest suspects, and conduct inquiries to establish the truth.
Arrest and detention: The police can arrest individuals based on reasonable suspicion or with a warrant issued by a competent authority. They can also detain suspects for a limited period for questioning and further investigation.
Search and seizure: The police have the power to search premises, vehicles, or individuals if they have reasonable grounds to believe that evidence related to a crime is present. They can seize relevant items during the search.
Traffic control: Police officers are responsible for regulating traffic, enforcing traffic rules and regulations, and ensuring road safety.
Prevention and detection of crimes: The police actively work to prevent criminal activities by maintaining surveillance, conducting patrols, and taking proactive measures to identify and prevent potential offenses. They also investigate crimes to identify and apprehend the culprits.
Protection of vulnerable sections: The police play a crucial role in protecting vulnerable sections of society, such as women, children, and minorities, from crimes, exploitation, and discrimination.
Maintenance of public order during events: The police are often deployed during public gatherings, protests, and events to ensure public safety, manage crowd control, and prevent any potential disruption or violence.
Registration of FIR: The police have the duty to register First Information Reports (FIRs) when a cognizable offense is reported. FIR is the first step in the criminal justice process, and it sets the foundation for the investigation.
Crime prevention programs: The police develop and implement crime prevention programs, community policing initiatives, and awareness campaigns to promote public safety and engage with the community to address local concerns.
Specialized units: Indian police departments often have specialized units such as the Criminal Investigation Department (CID), Anti-Terrorism Squads (ATS), Cyber Crime Cells, and Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) to handle specific types of crimes and maintain specialized skills in dealing with them.
Witness protection: The police have the responsibility to protect witnesses, especially in sensitive cases, to ensure their safety and cooperation during investigations and court proceedings.
Maintenance of records: The police maintain records of criminal cases, including arrests, charges, and dispositions. These records play a vital role in the criminal justice system and aid in investigations and background checks.
Support to the judiciary: The police assist the judiciary by providing evidence, witness testimonies, and case-related information during trials. They may also execute arrest warrants, search warrants, and court orders as directed by the judiciary.
Assistance during emergencies: The police are often the first responders during emergencies, including natural disasters, accidents, and incidents that require immediate attention. They provide rescue, relief, and support services during such situations.
Coordination with other agencies: The police work in collaboration with other law enforcement agencies, such as intelligence agencies, central paramilitary forces, and state-level enforcement agencies, to address issues of national security, organized crime, and inter-state crimes.
Training and capacity building: The police department is responsible for training and capacity building of its personnel to equip them with the necessary skills, knowledge, and professionalism required to fulfill their duties effectively.
Public assistance and service: Apart from law enforcement, the police also provide assistance and services to the public, such as issuing various licenses and permits, managing lost and found property, and facilitating the process for obtaining police clearance certificates.
Juvenile justice: The police play a critical role in handling cases involving juveniles. They are responsible for ensuring the protection, care, and rehabilitation of children in conflict with the law in accordance with the Juvenile Justice Act.
Anti-corruption measures: The police are involved in investigating corruption cases and maintaining vigilance against corrupt practices. Special anti-corruption units, such as the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) and state-level Anti-Corruption Bureaus, work to prevent, detect, and prosecute corruption-related offenses.
Counter-terrorism efforts: Indian police, in coordination with other security agencies, are actively engaged in counter-terrorism operations to prevent and combat terrorist activities. Specialized units like the National Security Guard (NSG) and State Anti-Terrorism Squads (ATS) are trained to respond to terrorist threats and incidents.
Protection of intellectual property rights: The police, in collaboration with agencies like the Copyright Office and Trademarks Registry, enforce laws related to intellectual property rights, such as copyright infringement and trademark violations.
Wildlife protection: In areas with significant biodiversity, the police are involved in combating wildlife crimes, such as poaching, smuggling of endangered species, and illegal trade in wildlife products. They work closely with forest departments and wildlife conservation agencies.
Public order during elections: During elections, the police play a crucial role in maintaining public order, preventing electoral malpractices, and ensuring a peaceful and fair electoral process. They work in coordination with election commissions and other relevant authorities.
International cooperation: The Indian police collaborate with law enforcement agencies of other countries on matters of mutual interest, such as extradition of fugitives, sharing of intelligence, and joint operations against transnational crimes.
Training and research: Police departments conduct training programs, workshops, and research activities to enhance the skills and knowledge of their personnel. This helps in adopting modern policing techniques, staying updated with advancements, and addressing emerging challenges effectively.
Traffic management and road safety: The police have the responsibility to regulate traffic, enforce traffic rules and regulations, and promote road safety. They often conduct awareness campaigns and initiatives to educate the public about safe driving practices.
Rehabilitation and reintegration: In addition to the enforcement of laws, the police are involved in the rehabilitation and reintegration of offenders back into society. They collaborate with social welfare departments and NGOs to provide support services and opportunities for the rehabilitation of individuals involved in criminal activities.
Community policing: The police engage with the community through community policing initiatives. They establish a closer relationship with residents, businesses, and community organizations to address local concerns, gather information, and foster cooperation in maintaining law and order.
Public safety during festivals and events: The police are responsible for ensuring public safety during festivals, large gatherings, and events. They take measures to prevent and manage crowd-related incidents, maintain order, and provide security.
Domestic violence and women’s safety: The police play a crucial role in addressing cases of domestic violence and ensuring the safety of women. They are responsible for responding to complaints, providing protection, and taking necessary legal actions to prevent and address domestic violence incidents.
Road accident investigation: The police investigate road accidents and determine the causes and liabilities. They collect evidence, record statements, and take appropriate actions, such as filing charges against reckless drivers, to enforce road safety and hold responsible parties accountable.
Narcotics and drug enforcement: The police are involved in combating drug-related offenses and the illegal drug trade. They work to identify drug networks, apprehend offenders, and seize narcotics to curb drug abuse and protect public health.
Crime intelligence and analysis: Police departments have intelligence units responsible for gathering, analyzing, and disseminating intelligence related to criminal activities. This helps in proactive crime prevention, identifying trends, and targeting organized criminal networks.
Public order in sensitive areas: In areas affected by communal tensions, social unrest, or insurgency, the police play a crucial role in maintaining public order, preventing violence, and promoting peace through effective policing strategies and community engagement.
Disaster management: The police actively participate in disaster management efforts during natural calamities, such as floods, earthquakes, and cyclones. They coordinate rescue operations, provide relief services, and ensure the safety and security of affected individuals.
Cybercrime prevention and investigation: With the rise of cybercrimes, the police have specialized units to investigate and prevent cyber offenses. They work to identify and apprehend cybercriminals, provide digital forensic support, and raise awareness about online safety and cybersecurity.
Protection of human rights: The police have the responsibility to protect and uphold the human rights of individuals. They are expected to ensure that their actions comply with legal provisions and respect the dignity and rights of all individuals, irrespective of their background.